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Originally Posted On: https://www.phcoker.com/anti-aging-drugs-came/
Are you dead set against aging? Well, an anti-aging supplement undoubtedly the most reliable option of reversing your biological clock. Have a look at the critical aspects of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN), its role in senescence, and how to acquire the treatment.
Growing old is inevitable. However, there’s potential for reversing the aging process using Nicotinamide Mononucleotide. Hold your horses because I’ll be giving you comprehensive information on how magical the compound works within the human cells.
Gray hair is equivalent to wisdom!
This belief is probably the best thing that will have you talk big. Nevertheless, your smile will be short-lived when you start noticing the wrinkles all over your skin. What is more, aging affects both physical and cognitive functions.
Let’s face it. The anti-aging facial creams and cosmetic surgeries have been the in thing in this smart century. What you need to know is that these procedures are short-term and are likely to trigger severe effects.
Practically, you ought to combat aging by first understanding the cellular and physiological processes that play a role in the age-related conditions. Afterward, it becomes easy to deduce the mechanisms of fighting against senescence. The anti-aging Nicotinamide Mononucleotide works to restore youthfulness.
We all want to age gracefully, right? Well, this realism may turn out to be impractical when your body continues to weaken, and you end up being a magnet for all kinds of heart diseases, Alzheimer’s, memory loss, and more.
So, what is the fuss all about Nicotinamide Mononucleotide? Let me explain.
NMN exists in both alpha (α) and beta (β) forms. However, β-NMN is the most active form. This bioactive nucleotide is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+.
This compound naturally exists in avocadoes, tomatoes, cucumber, cabbages, broccoli, and raw beef. In the laboratory, it is available as nicotinamide mononucleotide bulk powder.
In its raw form, it identifies with CAS number, 1094-61-7. The compound comes into being from the reaction between a nucleoside, such as nicotinamide riboside and a phosphate group.
In preclinical studies, Nicotinamide Mononucleotide work on mice has proved to be handy in cellular biochemical activities, management of Alzheimer’s disease, age-related diabetes, complications that arise from obesity, and cardioprotection. Despite all these pharmacological activities associated with Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, the most groundbreaking discovery is its involvement in anti-aging activities.
In the human body, NMN is the principal source of energy within the cells. As you age, cellular energy decreases due to the low levels of nicotinamide mononucleotide and subsequent reduction of NAD+. Administering NMN will reverse the process and compensate for the deficit.
(1) How is NMN mysterious?
These anti-aging supplements travel like lightning from the gut into the blood circulation. In a couple of minutes, they will have been taken up into the bloodstream. For this reason, it becomes clear that there might not be any biochemical reactions taking place in the molecules’ pathway.
The puzzling speed has made researchers to conclude the possibility of a transporter, which facilitates cell fuel delivery. For example, Imai and his associates set out to find an answer through his recent study published on January 7, 2019.
With old age, the body uses up more NAD+ than it can manufacture. However much you use nicotinamide mononucleotide, the process will still be a waste of time for as long as there’s no molecule to aid its transport. Keep scrolling to unravel the mysterious transporter that will solve 90% of the aging complications.
(2) Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Structural Formula
(3) Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Specifications
Both Nicotinamide Mononucleotide and NAD+ are significant biomarkers in cellular fuel delivery.
NMN is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The substance acts as a substrate for specific enzymes such as nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase, which convert to NAD+ in the human body. Upon degradation, this compound changes to nicotinamide. Subsequently, it undergoes another catalytic reaction involving nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) forming the NMN.
These two molecules are correlated such that the absence of any of them will affect the other. Take, for example, when the levels of NMN fall below optimum, probably due to senescence, the quantity of NAD+ will subsequently decline.
As you age, some enzymatic functions tend to consume NAD+ more than the body can generate fuel. The sirtuins, NADase, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) are part of the enzymes, which burn up NAD+ leading to its regression.
However, the decline of cellular fuel is not random. Take, for instance, the enzymatic reaction involving PARP aids in the repair of damaged DNA. Also, sirtuins play significant roles in improving cellular metabolism.
Although there’s a pharmacological relationship between these two biomarkers, you can never directly administer NAD+ into the system. In as much as the method is possible, the side effects will be insufferable. For example, a high dose is characterized by fatigue, anxiety, and insomnia. What is more, the compound is less permeable through the plasma membrane.
(1) Mechanism of Absorption
The anti-aging Nicotinamide Mononucleotide is available as an oral supplements. Its absorption through the gut wall and into the circulatory system starts in about three minutes. By the 15th min, all of it will have been taken up. A comprehensive study by Imai and his co-researchers ascertains that there exists a protein that accelerates this rapid absorption rate.
Upon assimilation into the tissues, NMN readily converts into NAD+ for convenient storage. The metabolism process can take up to half an hour. The concentration of NAD+ is prevalent in skeletal muscles, white adipose tissue, the liver, and the cortex. However, long-term administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide stepped up the level of NAD+ in other organs like the brown adipose tissue.
(2) NMN Biosynthetic Pathways
Within the mammalian cells, there are up to three different metabolic pathways compensating for NAD+ deficiency.
① The De Novo Pathway
De Novo is a Lain word, meaning “from the beginning.” Here, the nucleotides derive from tryptophan or nicotinic acid, which majorly originate from NMN-rich foods.
In this pathway, the sequence of the biochemical activity leads to the formation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide, and finally the much anticipated NAD+. De Novo produces about 15% of the total cellular fuel.
② The Salvage Pathway
Here, the pathway recovers nucleosides in cases where DNA breaks down. It accounts for over 80% of the total NAD+, which the human body requires for cellular functions. The route reuses both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide to synthesize fresh NAD+.
Nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase accelerates the formation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide from nicotinic acid. Subsequently, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 catalyzes the adenylation of the resultant product to nicotinic acid adenine mononucleotide, and finally to NAD+.
NMN work on human is dependent on this path.
③ NR Conversion
Nicotinamide Riboside is another NAD+ precursor. Upon phosphorylation in the presence of nicotinamide riboside kinase, the biomarker yields NMN before undergoing another enzymatic conversion into NAD+.
- History of NAD+ and NMN in Research
Over the years, the study and the therapeutic uses of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and its precursors have been all the rage. However, you should note that these anti-aging supplements have been widely held in research since the mid-1900s.
In 1906, the first scholars inferred that NAD+ accelerated the fermentation rate in yeast. Subsequently, other biochemists followed suit by classifying it as a nucleotide.
Through his research in 1937, Conrad Elvehjem discovered that nicotinamide and nicotinic are vitamins and precursors of NAD+. Later, he found out that these two could alleviate pellagra in dogs. The reason is that the levels of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were below optimum on individuals suffering from the disease.
In 1963, a team of scientists established that Nicotinamide Mononucleotide work on mice would stimulate DNA-dependent enzymes, which were significant in boosting cellular functions. Two years later, some researchers brought to light the NAD+ biochemical pathways involving tryptophan and nicotinic acid.
Since then, biochemists have kept on showing interest in NMN and NAD+ research. In this era, the critical focus is on the significance of these anti-aging supplements in longevity and curtailing age-related complications.
There are countless preclinical studies on murine models that bear out the therapeutic benefits of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (1094-61-7).
Let’s focus on a few, which have had a revolutionary effect in biochemistry.
(1) According to Sinclair, NAD+ is a Fountain of Youthfulness
Dr. Sinclair and his colleagues have published several pieces of research regarding the potentiality of nicotinamide mononucleotide and NAD+ in reversing aging. According to his 2013 study, Sinclair and the team found out that 22-month old mice taking NMN for six days showed improvements on muscle capacity, metabolism, and endurance.
Later in a 2016 research paper, the group affirmed that NMN had similar benefits as exercising. Rather than running on a treadmill daily, you can still experience the same effects when you use Nicotinamide Mononucleotide supplements instead.
According to this Harvard Geneticist, the NMN work on human revolves around ameliorating blood flow on the elderly and elite athletes.
(2) Mills Asserts that NMN Alleviates Physiological Decline in Aging Mice
In reference to the 2016 study, Mills et al. found that NMN treatment would counter the decline in both physiological and immunological function in old mice. At the end of this NMN supplement research, the rodents registered an increase in the expression of immune cells, lymphocytic proliferation, and shrinkage in neutrophils.
Previously, in 2011, Mills, Yoshino, and Imai had used mice models to confirm the role of NAD+ in the treatment of diet-induced and age-related diabetes. In yet another 2016 study, he joined hands with other researchers who established that NMN supplementation would counteract oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction in aged mice.
(3) NMN Combats Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in Murine Models
In 2015, Long et al. investigated the effect of NMN on brain mitochondrial respiratory deficits on mice with Alzheimer’s disease. The team noted that the NMN treatment was able to treat the etiology of AD, including low OCR (oxygen consumption rates), NAD+ falloff, and mitochondria abnormalities.
In 2016, Wang and his associates published their research, concluding that these anti-aging supplements combat cognitive and neural impairment, which result from β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomer. This Aβ protein is neurotoxic and is responsible for plaque formation in the brain of AD patients. Wang et al. concluded that NMN administration in mice led to a decrease in Aβ oligomers, thereby boosting the cognitive functions.
Following a 2017 study, Hou and his colleagues discovered that NAD+ supplementation decreased the production of β-amyloid oligomers. A year later, Yao and his team established that Nicotinamide Mononucleotide reduces the accumulation of Aβ and synaptic loss in AD-Tg murine models.
(4) NMN and Cardio-protection
According to a 2014 publication by Yamamoto and his colleagues, NMN protects the heart against ischemic injury and reperfusion. Before this study, Yamamoto was part of a 2012 team, which found out that NAD+ counters diet-induced obesity in mice.
In 2016, De Picciotto et al. and his fellow biochemists studied the effect of NMN supplementation on the vascular functionality of aging mice. From the inference, nicotinamide mononucleotide proved to be effective in reversing vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and decrease in elastin.
(5) The Discovery on a New Route of Cell Fuel Delivery by Shin-Ichiro Imai
In recent research, a team of scientists led by Imai discovered and unraveled the mysterious transporter of NMN into the cells.
This NMN supplement research was first available in January 2019 in Nature Metabolism. Imai established that a particular protein, Slc12a8, is responsible for the rapid conversion of NMN to NAD+ and transporting it into the cell. This enzyme is predominant in old folks rather than in young or healthy individuals.
In all the preclinical studies, research scientists would dissolve known measures of nicotinamide mononucleotide bulk powder in water before administering them to the mice.
NMN has numerous therapeutic functions and pharmacological effects on the human body. In less than a decade, scientists have dedicated their time to study all the Nicotinamide Mononucleotide benefits including the mechanisms that explain aging and the age-related ailments.
Let’s delve into the advantages of the compound in the human system.
(1) Lengthening the Cellular Lifespan
Up to the onset of the 21st century, scholars had enough reasons to declare aging as an irreversible process. However, this notion has become void thanks to the cutting-edge discovery of anti-aging supplements like Nicotinamide Mononucleotide.
NMN is natural-occurring in the human cells and is responsible for the biosynthesis of NAD+ and production of energy. As you grow old, these two compounds degenerate leading to regression of the stem cells. Remember, these functional units need enough cellular fuel to replicate continually, and therefore, a fall off will cut short the cellular lifespan.
Administering effective anti-aging supplements like NMN will reverse the process and delay the aging mechanism.
(2) Upholding Youthful Cellular Energy Levels
The primary origin of the scores of ailments associated with aging is narrowed down to the cellular level. A decrease in the production of energy within the cells is the major contributing factor of the old age symptoms.
Being a precursor of NAD+, NMN has a role to play in maintaining the optimal energy levels of the cell’s mitochondria. Aging will automatically cause a decline in the concentration of NAD+. As a result, the aging process momentarily picks up leading to the development of old age diseases.
A drop in the cellular energy levels within the vital organs such as muscles, blood vessels, kidneys, liver, or pancreas always interferes with physical and cognitive health. It’s for this reason that diseases such as ischemia, heart conditions, kidney failure, neurodegenerative disorders, and others shoot up.
The perfect solution is by supplementing the body’s Nicotinamide mononucleotide and NAD+ with external NMN treatment. These anti-aging supplements give a new lease of life to the aging cells, which will then put on a youthful look.
(3) Improving Blood Circulation
One of the changes that occur during old is the decrease in the quality of the blood vessels within the mammalian body. Therefore, the circulatory system undergoes a lot of strain when carrying nutrients, oxygen, heat, or removing waste from the organs. Since the situation is persistent, it worsens over time leading to the occurrence of long-standing diseases.
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide is indirectly responsible for the production of blood vessels. Allow me to explain. The compound synthesizes NAD+, which in turn activates sirtuin deacetylase (SIRT1) protein.
Conversely, SIRT1 deacetylates lysine residues that aid in the production of oxygen free radicals. This mechanism fights against possible oxidative stress, reperfusion, or ischemic injuries. In typical cases, the body itself will endogenously counteract ischemia and the related conditions through ischemic preconditioning (IPC). IPC will then act to stimulate the production of SIRT1.
You can either administer NMN before an ischemic event occurs or during its manifestation. Before the occurrence, the compound offers cardio-protection by boosting ATP production through glycolysis.
In the case of Ischemia, you can still use Nicotinamide Mononucleotide as it will trigger acidosis and cause mitochondrial impermeability; hence, guaranteeing the protection of the cardiac system.
(4) Muscle Endurance
What do you expect when the blood flow declines? Well, the state will lead to loss of muscle mass. It’s no doubt you’ll notice the old folks have less performance, low endurance, immobile, and so much tired all the time.
One of the groundbreaking discoveries by Dr. Sinclair was centered on the efficiency of NMN in boosting muscle strength. According to his 2013 and the recent 2018 studies, old mice exposed to a seven-day NMN treatment became physically fit and active like their younger counterparts.
The muscle capacity and the endurance of the oldest mice (30-months old) were the same as those of a five-month-old youngling. These ages are comparable with approximately 70 and 20 years in humans. From the findings, you can infer that NMN work on human is sure as death.
(5) Combating Neurodegenerative Disorders
The brain is more like a powerhouse of your system. This aspect might be the reason why medics will always rely on brain functions when declaring the time of death.
A reduction in the levels of NAD+ in the brain interferes with cognitive health among the elderly. Administration of NMN accelerates NAD+ production, hence, protecting the neural functions.
Scores of studies prove that Nicotinamide Mononucleotide benefits cognition, stroke, and impedes memory loss, which is prevalent with old age. Summarily, this anti-aging supplement is responsible for the maintenance of neurons.
NMN mainly targets the etiology of any given neurological condition. For instance, Alzheimer’s disease occurs due to a decrease in NAD+, a low rate of oxygen consumption in the brain, and mitochondrial abnormalities. Increasing the amount of NMN in the body counters all these effects.
According to a study published in 2012, Nicotinamide Mononucleotide will effectively manage intracerebral damage, which often leads to stroke. Old mice who were under NMN dosage registered significant improvement in the intracerebral NAD+ production. These research models had maximum protection against ischemic stroke, neural death, and neurological inflammation.
(6) Improved Metabolism in Old Age
Several researchers have studied and proved that NMN facilitates glucose tolerance while enhancing the metabolism of sugar on aging mice with a poor diet. This study also applied to aged humans who develop diabetes either as a result of high sugar or poor nutrition. Additionally, a diet rich in fat leads to insulin resistance.
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide maintains a peak production of NAD+, which in turn reduces the age-related inflammation while improving the activation of insulin in fatty organs.
(7) Treatment of Diabetes
People with type II diabetes always exhibit resistance to insulin. This characteristic is due to a falloff in NAD+. As a result, the cells undergo oxidative stress and inflammation. If you’re still young, the body will rejuvenate itself through some endogenous physiological activities. However, with old age, NAD+ levels decrease in the life-supporting organs like the skeletal muscles, liver, brain, and pancreas.
Another contributing factor to age-related diabetes is a high-fat diet. Abnormal amounts of saturated fats inhibit the biosynthesis of NAD+. In a bid to prove the efficacy of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide in the treatment of age and diet-induced diabetes, Yoshino and his colleagues used two mice models.
After administering a daily dose of NMN for close to 10 days, the scholars established that the mice, which were subjected to high-fat meals, recorded improved insulin intolerance. On the other hand, the diabetic mice showed significant improvement in hyperlipidemia.
(8) Reversing Aging
Chronic health complications always accompany the process of aging. As the body undergoes several physiological changes, some of the cellular functions happen to fall back. Take, for example, the levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide decreases in multiple organs, leading to a decline in energy production by the cell’s mitochondrion.
Aging sets in motion various factors such as damaging of the DNA due to uncharged molecules, vascular oxidative stress, and other cognitive disorders. Do you know what happens? Well, there’s a DNA-repairing protein (PARP1) in the human system. In the case of DNA damage, NAD+ will activate this protein to repair the affected cell.
Several studies have come up with the nicotinamide mononucleotide benefits in aging. For instance, Mills and his colleagues used mice models to investigate the effect of NMN age-induced physiological decline.
In the study, the researchers noted that long-term administration of the treatment led to the upregulation of the compromised genes within the liver, skeletal muscles, and the adipose tissue. What is more, the findings confirmed an improvement in the immune cell expression, an increase in lymphocytes, and activation of the leukocytes.
Another characteristic of aging is the presence of light-colored spots in the eye fundus. This condition together with bone density depletion and the inability to produce tears have been studied thoroughly on rodents. Scientists observed that mice, which were put on a 12-month NMN treatment, had all the above conditions reversed.
Longevity is the sole reason why people buy Nicotinamide Mononucleotide.
(9) Treatment of Obesity
For the elderly, NMN can reduce up to 10% of the initial body weight without finding the middle ground between appetite and growth. The pathological mechanism of obesity and diabetes are correlated. Low NAD+ levels bring about mitochondrial dysfunction; hence, a decrease in the production of ATP.
Obesity weighs down the potential of the mitochondria in generating ATP energy for the cells. Once you administer Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, the supplement will improve glucose intolerance and other metabolic functions relating to obesity.
When it comes to improving the blood flow, NMN for obese treatment acts similarly to exercising. A single pill would be as good as using a treadmill daily. However, the difference comes in the levels of NAD+ content in the body organs. Whereas Nicotinamide Mononucleotide increases NAD+ in both the liver and muscular tissues, exercise only builds up the compound within the muscles.
Well, this might be the current question ringing in your head. In any case, all the research and Preclinical studies centered on Nicotinamide mononucleotide and NAD+ have been targeting the murine models.
If you have reservations about the efficiency of NMN work on human, here’s all you need to know. Dr. David Sinclair, a top researcher, and geneticist at Harvard University is one of the recipients of NMN.
Sinclair confesses that he takes the supplement. So far, the scholar hasn’t recorded any grave nicotinamide mononucleotide side effects. On the contrary, he professes that he feels young with a sharp mind. Hangovers and jet lags are now a past tense to him. He further asserts that his father, who is in his late seventies, also takes the supplement.
Additionally, Dr. Sinclair has used the treatment as an early trial at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital. He has plans for further testing the supplement on healthy elderly folks. Although his phase one study is complete, he is yet to make an official publication. Sinclair began the second phase of this clinical NMN supplement research in 2018.
In a clinical study that is due on 1st June 2020, researchers are looking to establish the change in sensitivity and the beta-cell functions with NMN supplementation in humans. The scholars are from the Washington University School of Medicine and Keio University School of Medicine in Tokyo.
In a human trial that kicked off in 2016 at Keio University, the scholars were looking to assess the safety of NMN in healthy adults. In the ongoing second phase, the same institute, led by Shin-Ichiro, is investigating long-term NMN administration. What’s more, the team is seeking to evaluate the metabolic-syndrome-related parameters, NMN kinetics, and the supplement’s effect on glucose metabolism.
In the 2017 clinical study by the University of Washington, the participants included 50 women aged 55 to 75 years. The group was put on a daily dosage of 250mg of NMN for eight weeks. Although they were healthy individuals, these women slightly had high levels of blood glucose, triglyceride, and BMI. The study is not yet complete.
If you are looking to buy nicotinamide mononucleotide, there are a few things you need to know.
You can only take the treatment as a dietary supplement since it has not yet received a final FDA endorsement to be a prescription drug.
The dosage ranges between 25mg and 300mg depending on the health benefits you want to achieve. However, some people confess taking up to 1000mg per day. Take, for example, Dr. Sinclair takes 750mg/day. Besides, he supplements this regime with resveratrol and metformin.
In NMN clinical trials, most researchers would put their subjects on a dose range of 100mg to 250mg.
Oral vs. Sublingual
If you want to maximize the bioavailability of this supplement, you should buy Nicotinamide Mononucleotide tablets for sublingual administration. Taking the supplement orally reduces the amount absorbed into the tissues. The reason is that it undergoes metabolism and degradation as it passes through the digestive tract and the liver.
Sublingual NMN directly enters the bloodstream without any filtrations. The absorption rate of this method of delivery is approximately five times more than oral administration. In this case, you will have to increase the dosage to make up for the first pass metabolism in the liver. Supposing you were doing research, you might need nicotinamide mononucleotide bulk powder for you to complete the study.
Typical are synonymous with those exhibited by niacinamide and other vitamin B3 compoundnicotinamide mononucleotide side effects s. However, most people do not even experience them at all. For example, the top Harvard University research scientist admits taking NMN, but he hasn’t noticed any knock-on effects.
So far, in all the available Nicotinamide Mononucleotide work on mice, no data shows the existence of any side effects in murine models. No researcher has recorded a negative symptom both in short and long-term NMN administration.
Some people may observe the following negative upshots;
- Stomach upset
- Allergic reactions such as itchiness, hives, or rashes
In rare cases, nicotinamide mononucleotide side effects can be severe to the extent that you’ve to seek immediate health check-up. To mention a few, breathing difficulties, irregular heartbeat, persistent vomiting, yellowing skin, and loss of appetite are among the acute symptoms.
To this point, clinical trials have only been centered on healthy adults in the age bracket of 45 to 75 years. For this reason, the following groups should be cautious before administering the NMN anti-aging supplements.
- Pregnant and nursing mothers
- Individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to NMN
- Patients taking medications for chronic diseases
(1) NMN Food Sources
You’re probably making a fuss as to why you should buy Nicotinamide Mononucleotide when you can readily find it in certain foods. Let me briefly explain why this supplement is necessary.
As NAD+ declines in the body due to aging, the cells will not be able to counter the effect. At this point, your only choice might be using the NMN supplements. Clinicians will encourage you to take NMN-rich foods like broccoli, mushrooms, edamame, or shrimp. However, these meals will only give out less than 5% of what your body requires.
FDA recommends that any human being needs approximately 560mg of NMN per day. Supposing you are to get the supplement from broccoli, you will have to consume over 1500 pounds of the same.
(2) NMN Supplements
The nicotinamide mononucleotide bulk powder is available for sale in most pharmaceutical and drug stores or laboratories. If you want some for your research, you can make a bulk order, which comes with discounted prices and waivers on the shipping charges.
Making online purchases of NMN not only saves on your time but also offers an excellent platform for comparing different prices. If you aren’t a researcher, you can still buy Nicotinamide Mononucleotide supplements for personal use. Before making an order, ensure it is a food grade product.
It sounds illogical to assert that NMN prolongs the life span of humans. However, this assertion holds up. The cause of death among the elderly is due to age-induced diseases, which come about as a result of poor cellular functions.
The anti-aging Nicotinamide Mononucleotide only steps in to improve the cellular fuel delivery and boost the functionality of the cells. It acts by upregulating NAD+, which tends to decline as we age.
Using anti-aging facial creams, moisturizers, sunscreens, or embarking on regular exercises on a healthy diet might only change your face. However, you need to understand the root cause of aging complications to deal with them individually. Nicotinamide mononucleotide reverses the aging process by repairing damaged DNA, protecting the brain, cardiac system, improving the muscle functions, and boosting endurance.
If you want nicotinamide mononucleotide bulk powder, check in with us and enjoy friendly prices.
- Mills, K.F., Yoshino, J., Yoshida, S., et al. (2016). Long-Term Administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Mitigates Age-Associated Physiological Decline in Mice. Cell Metabolism.
- Yoshino, J., Mills, K.F., Imai, S.I., and Yoon, M.J. (2011). Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, a key NAD+ Intermediate, Treats the Pathophysiology of Diet- and Age-Induced Diabetes in Mice. Cell Metabolism.
- Yamamoto, T., Byun, J., Zhai P., Ikeda, Y., Oka, S., and Sadoshima, J. (2014). Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, an Intermediate of NAD+ Synthesis, Protects the Heart from Ischemia and Reperfusion.
- Sinclair, D.A., Uddin, G.M., Youngson, N.A., and Morris, M.J. (2016). Head to Head Comparison of Short-Term Treatment with NAD+ precursor Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) and six Weeks of Exercise in Obese Female Mice.
- Imai, S., Yoshino, J., Mills, K.F., Grozio, A., et al. (2019) Slc12a8 is a Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Transporter. Nature Metabolism.
- De Picciotto, N.E., Mills, K.F., Imai, S., Gano, L.B., et al. (2016). Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Reverses Vascular Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress with Aging Mice.
- Yao, Z., Gao, Z., Yang, W., and Jia, P. (2017). Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Inhibits JNK Activation to Reverse Alzheimer Disease.
- Hou, Y., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Lautrup, S., et al. (2018). NAD+ Supplementation Normalizes Key Alzheimer’s Features and DNA Damage Responses in a New AD Mouse Model with Introduced DNA Repair Deficiency.